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Lý thuyết & Bài tập về Giới từ – Có đáp án

LÝ THUYẾT & BÀI TẬP VỀ GIỚI TỪ ÔN THI THPTQG MÔN ANH

I. Các loại giới từ (Kinds of preposition):

Xem thêm: Bài tập giới từ có đáp án

1. Giới từ chỉ thời gian (Prepositions of time):

IN (trong, vào) được dùng để chỉ các buổi trong ngày (ngoại trừ at night), tháng, năm, mùa, thập niên, thế kỷ hoặc khoảng thời gian ở tương lai.

Ex: in the morning, in January, in 1990, in the summer, in the 1990s, in the 20th century,

in the Middle Age, in ten minutes

IN TIME: đúng lúc, kịp lúc

Ex: Will you be home in time for dinner?

AT (vào lúc) được dùng để chỉ thời điểm hoặc các kỳ nghỉ (tòan bộ những ngày trong kỳ nghỉ)

Ex: at 6 o’clock, at night, at noon, at midnight, at bedtime, at dawn, at the weekend,

at Christmas, at New Year, at Easter

At : được dùng trong một số cụm từ chỉ thời gian: at the moment, at present, at the same time, at once, at that time, at first, at last

ON (vào) được dùng để chỉ ngày trong tuần, ngày tháng trong năm, ngày trong kỳ nghỉ hoặc các buổi trong ngày cụ thể.

Ex: on Monday, on 5th January, on Christmas Day, on Monday morning, on one’s birthday

ON TIME: đúng giờ

Ex: The train arrived right on time.

FOR (trong) + khoảng thời gian: for two months, for a long time

SINCE (từ, từ khi) + mốc thời gian: since last Monday, since 2002

UNTIL/ TILL (đến, cho đến): until 5 o’clock, till midnight

BEFORE (trước, trước khi): before lunchtime

AFTER (sau, sau khi): after luchtime

DURING (trong, suốt): during World War II

BY (vào lúc): by the end of May

FROM … TO (từ … đến): from morning to noon

2. Giới từ chỉ nơi chốn (Prepositions of place):

AT (ở, tại) được dùng để chỉ vị trí tại một điểm.

Ex: at home, at school, at the bus stop, at the airport, at the office, at the cinema, at the seaside, at the grocer’s, at the top/ bottom, at the beginning/ end, at the front/ back

* Lưu ý: arrive at the village/ the airport/ the railway station

But: arrive in Vietnam/ Ho Chi Minh City

IN (trong, ở trong) được dùng để chỉ vị trí trong một diện tích, một không gian; dùng trước tên đường, tên thị trấn, thành phố, quốc gia, miền, phương hướng hoặc dùng với các phương tiện đi lại bằng xe hơi (car).

Ex: in a box, in a small room, in the countryside, in the world, in Oxford Street, in London, in Vietnam, in the east, in a car/ taxi

* Lưu ý: in a car (trong xe hơi), but: by car (bằng xe hơi)

ON (trên, ở trên) được dùng để chỉ vị trí trên bề mặt, số tầng trong một tòa nhà, trước tên đường (US) hoặc dùng với một số phương tiện đi lại.

Ex: on the table, on the wall, on the ground, on the first floor, on Albert Street, on a bus/ train/ plane/ (motor)bike/ horse, on foot

On cịn được dùng trong một số cụm từ: on the left/ right, on the farm, on the coast/ beach, on TV/ radio…

ABOVE/ OVER (bên trên – không tiếp xúc với bề mặt)

Ex: Her name comes above mine on the list.

The sign over the door said: “Exit”.

UNDER/ BELOW (ở dưới, dưới)

Ex: The shoes are under the chair.

The temperature has fallen below zero.

IN FRONT OF (ở phía trước), BEHIND (ở phía sau), IN THE MIDDLE OF (ở giữa)

Ex: I hung my raincoat in front of/ behind the door.

NEAR (gần)

Ex: Is there a train station near here?

NEXT TO, BY, BESIDE (bên cạnh, kế bên)

Ex: Peter is standing by the gate.

BETWEEN (ở giữa hai người/ vật), AMONG (ở giữa nhiều người/ vật)

Ex: Tom is sitting between Mary and Peter.

Tom is among the crowd.

INSIDE (ở bên trong), OUTSIDE (ở bên ngòai)

Ex: Luckily, no one was inside the building when it collapsed.

OPPOSITE (đối diện)

Ex: They sat opposite each other.

3. Giới từ chỉ sự chuyển động (Prepositions of movement):

TO (đến)

Ex: He goes to school by bus.

FROM … TO (từ … đến)

Ex: How far is it from New York to California?

THROUGH (xuyên qua)

Ex: They walked through the woods.

ACROSS (ngang qua)

Ex: The children ran straight across in front of our car.

ROUND/ AROUND (quanh)

Ex: The earth moves round/ around the sun.

ALONG (dọc theo)

Ex: We had a walk along the river bank.

UP (lên)/ DOWN (xuống)

Ex: We followed her up the stair.

TOWARD(S) (về phía)

Ex: Mary stood up and walked towards Peter.

4. Một số giới từ khác:

– Giới từ chỉ mục đích: for, to, in order to, so as to (để)

– Giới từ chỉ nguyên nhân: for, because of, owning to (bởi vì)

– Giới từ chỉ phương tiện: by, with (bằng), through (nhờ qua)

– Giới từ chỉ thể cách: with ( với), without (không có)

– Giới từ chỉ sự tương quan: according to (tùy theo), instead of (thay vì), in spite of (mặc dù)

II. Giới từ theo sau danh từ, tính từ và động từ (Prepositions following nouns, adjectives, and verbs):

1. Noun + preposition:

FOR

affection for: yêu mến need for: sự cần thiết cho

demand for: nhu cầu về reputation for: sự nổi tiếng

reason for: lý do về regret for: nuối tiếc

responsibility for: trách nhiệm admiration for: khâm phục

talent for: tài năng desire for: sự mong muốn

cure for: việc chữa trị cho

IN

rise in: phát triển, tăng increase in: phát triển, tăng

decresase in: giảm belief in: tin

experience in: có kinh nghiệm interest in: thích, quan tâm

delay in: trì hõan

Tham khảo: Đề cương học kì 1 môn Sinh lớp 11 – phần lý thuyết

OF

cause of: nguyên nhân advantage/ disadvantage of: thuận lợi/ bất lợi

knowledge of: kiến thức lack of: thiếu

opinion of: ý kiến benefit of: lợi ích

example of: ví dụ sense of: ý thức

TO

damage to: sự hư hại đối với invitation to: lời mời

reaction to: phản ứng solution to: giải pháp

attitude to: thái độ access to: phương tiện

threat to: đe dọa reply to: đáp lại

ON

Tham khảo: Chuyên đề tháng 12: KIỂU DỮ LIỆU XÂU TRONG PASCAL

effect on: ảnh hưởng influence on: ảnh hưởng

advice on: khuyên report on: báo cáo

WITH

relationship with: mối quan hệ connection with: sự liên quan với

contact with: sự tiếp xúc với association with: sự kết giao với

link with: liên kết với trouble with: có vấn đề với

BETWEEN

difference between: sự khác biệt comparison between: so sánh

2. Adjective + preposition:

ABOUT

annoyed (with sb) about: bực tức excited about: hào hứng

anxious/ worried about: lo lắng furious about: điên tiết về

careful about: cẩn thận về happy about: hạnh phúc

careless about: bất cẩn về sad/ upset about: buồn/ thất vọng

concerned about: quan tâm serious about: nghiêm túc về

confused about: nhầm lẩn về sorry about/ for: xin lỗi về

AT

amazed at: kinh ngạc về good at: dở về (good for: tốt cho)

bad at: dở về (bad for: xấu cho) quick at: nhanh nhẹn về

clever at: khéo léo về skillful at: khéo léo về

excellent at: xuất sắc về surprised at: ngạc nhiên về

FOR

available for: có sẵn late for: trễ

eager for: nóng lòng chờ necessary for: cần thiết cho

eligible for: xứng đáng cho responsible for: chịu trách nhiệm

famous for: nổi tiếng useful for: có ích cho

known for: nổi tiếng

FROM

absent from: vắng mặt ở free from/ of: thóat khỏi

different from: khác với safe from: an tòan

IN

disappointed in/ with: thất vọng involved in: có liên quan

interested in: quan tâm rich in: giàu có, phong phú

successful in: thành công

Tham khảo: Đề cương học kì 1 môn Sinh lớp 11 – phần lý thuyết

OF

afraid of: sợ full of: đầy

ahead of: đi trước guilty of: có tội

ashamed of: hổ thẹn independent of: độc lập

aware/ conscious of: ý thức jealous of: ghen tị

capable of: có khả năng proud of: tự hào

certain of/ about: chắc về scared of: hoảng sợ

confident of: tự tin short of: cạn kiệt

envious of: ghen tị sure of: chắc

fond of: thích tired of: chán

frightened of: sợ typical of: tiêu biểu

TO

accustomed to: quen grateful to sb for sth: biết ơn

addicted to: nghiện opposed to: phản đối

committed to: tận tụy harmful to: có hại cho

contrary to: trái với important to: quan trọng với

dedicated to: tận tụy married to: thành hơn với

devoted to: tận tâm open to: mở ra cho

equal to: bằng với similar to: tương tự với

essential to/ for: cần thiết cho

WITH

acquainted with: quen với friendly with: thân thiện

angry with/ at sb about sth: giận happy with/ about: hạnh phúc về

angry with/ at sb for doing sth: giận honest with: thành thật với

bored with/ fed up with: chán với identical with: giống hệt với

busy with: bận rộn với impatient with: mất kiên nhẫn với

crowded with: đông đúc patient with: kiên nhẫn với

disappointed with: thất vọng pleased/ satisfied with: hài lòng với

familiar with: quen thuộc với popular with: phổ biến với

OF/ TO

generous/ good/ kind/ nice/ polite/ rude/ stupid… to sb

generous/ good/ kind/ nice/ polite/ rude/ stupid… of sb to do sth

3. Verb + preposition:

ABOUT

care about sb/ sth: coi trọng remind sb about sth: nhắc ai nhớ

(care for: thích) (remind sb of sb/ sth: gợi ai nhớ đến)

complain about: phàn nàn talk about sb/ sth: nói chuyện về

dream about/ of sb/ sth: mơ về tell sb about sb/ sth: nói với ai về

forget about: quên think about/ of sb/ sth: nghĩ về

hear about sth: nghe nói về warn sb about/ of sth: cảnh báo về

(hear from sb: nghe tin tức của ai) worry about: lo lắng

learn about: biết

AT

aim (sth) at sb/ sth: nhắm vào shout at sb: la mắng ai

arrive at/ in: đến tại (shout to sb: goi lớn ai)

glance at sb/ sth: liếc nhìn smile at sb: mỉm cười với ai

laugh at sb: cười nhạo ai stare at sb/ sth: nhìn chăm chú

look at sb/ sth: nhìn vào throw sth at sb: ném mạnh vào ai

point (sth) at sb/ sth: chĩa vào (throw sth to sb: ném cho ai bắt)

FOR

apply for sth: nộp đơn xin leave (a place) for: rời…. để đi đến

account for: giải thích look for sb/ sth: tìm kiếm

apologize for: xin lỗi (look after sb/ sth: chăm sóc)

ask sb for sth: yêu cầu ai về pay for sth: trả tiền cho

blame sb for sth: đổ lỗi cho ai về search for sb/ sth: tìm kiếm

excuse for: xin lỗi thank sb for (doing) sth: cảm ơn

forgive sb for (doing) sth: tha thứ wait for sb/ sth: chờ đợi

hope for sth: hy vọng về

FROM

escape from: trốn thóat khỏi protect sb from sth: bảo vệ

prevent sb from (doing) sth: ngăn chặn suffer from sth: chịu, bị (bệnh, đau khổ…)

IN

believe in sb/ sth: tin vào specialize in sth: chuyên về

participate in: tham gia succeed in (doing) sth: thành công về

INTO

crash into: tông, đụng vào divide/ split into: chia ra

cut into: cắt ra thành translate (from a language) into: dịch ra

Tham khảo: Đề cương học kì 1 môn Sinh lớp 11 – phần lý thuyết

OF

accuse sb of (doing) sth: buộc tội ai disapprove of sth: không đồng ý

approve of: đồng ý, chấp thuận hear of: nghe tin

consist of sb/ sth: bao gồm suspect sb of (doing) sth: nghi ngờ

die of/ from: chết vì think of: nghĩ về

ON

concentrate on sth: tập trung vào live onsb/ sth: sống nhờ vào

congratulate sb on (doing) sth: chúc mừng plan on: kế hoạch

comment on: phê bình rely on: tin cậy

depend on: phụ thuộc spend (money) on sth: tiêu (tiền)

insist on (doing) sth: nài nỉ

TO

adapt to: thích nghi explain sth to sb: giải thích cho ai

add to: thêm vào happen to sb/ sth: xảy ra với

adjust to: điều chỉnh listen to: lắng nghe

apologize to sb for (doing) sth: xin lỗi ai về object to: phản đối

complain to sb about sth: phàn nàn prefer … to …: thích … hơn

describe sth to sb: mô tả cho ai talk/ speak to sb: nói với

devote to: cống hiến

WITH

agree with: đồng ý fill with: làm đầy

argue with: cãi nhau với provide sb with sth: cung cấp

collide with: tông, đụng vào (provide sth for sb: cung cấp)

communicate with: giao tiếp supply sb with sth: cung cấp

compare with/to: so sánh (supply sth to sb: cung cấp)

EXERCISES

I. Fill in each blank with the correct preposition.

1. The price of electricity is going up _____ August.

2. They came to visit us _____ my birthday.

3. Did you have a good time _____ Christmas?

4. The children are really excited _____ their summer vacation.

5. We were very disappointed _____ the organization of the festival.

6. John missed a lot of lessons. He was ill _____ January to March.

7. Helen had said goodbye to everybody in the class _____ she left for the hometown.

8. My cat is very fond _____ fish.

9. I waited _____ 10 o’clock and then went home.

10. I can’t remember exactly when the accident happened. I think it was _____ nine and half past nine.

11. Are you acquainted _____ the lady?

12. _____ the children left, the house was very quiet.

13. These photographs were taken _____ a friend of mine.

14. The river Rhine flows _____ the North sea.

15. I shall meet you _____ the corner _____ the street.

16. I always come _____ school _____ foot.

17. He had learned the whole poem _____ heart.

18. He has waited _____ her for a long time.

19. He’s not very keen _____ watching football, but his wife is.

20. Are you worried _____ the final examination?

II. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.

1. _____ time _____ time I will examine you on the work you have done.

A. From / to B. At / to C. In / to D. With / to

2. This village is inhabited _____ tens of thieves.

A. with B. to C. by D. for

3. God has bestowed _____ me many graces.

A. on B. for C. to D. with

4. Make a comment _____ this sentence!

A. to B. in C. on D. about

5. He’s a very wealthy man; a few hundred pounds is nothing _____ him.

A. for B. with C. to D. about

6. She does not show much affection _____ him.

A. with B. in C. for D. to

7. The clerk _____ that counter said those purses were _____ sale.

A. in/ for B. at/ on C. at/ in D. on/ on

8. Someone broke into the shop and made _____ with several TVs and videos.

A. of B. up C. out D. off

9. Old people like to descant _____ past memories.

A. in B. with C. on D. for

10. You should comply _____ the school rules.

A. to B. about C. with D. in

11. The people next door are furious _____ us _____ making so much noise last night.

A. at/ with B. with/ for C. for/ to D. about/ in

12. The Vietnamese participants always take part _____ sports events with great enthusiasm.

A. in B. on C. at D. to

13. He isn’t independent _____ any means. He depends _____ his father _____ everything.

A. by/ on/ in B. for/ on/ in C. of/ in/ for D. on/ in/ with

14. He may be quick _____ understanding but he isn’t capable _____ remembering anything.

A. in/ of B. on/ at C. at/ of D. of/ at

15. Mum is always busy _____ her work in the laboratory.

A. with B. at C. in D. of

16 Lan will stay there _____ the beginning in September _____ November.

A. from/ to B. till/ to C. from/ in D. till/ of

17. I would like to apply _____ the position of sales clerk that you advised in the Sunday newspaper.

A. for B. to C. with D. in

18. I have been looking _____ this book for months, and at last, I have found it.

A. over B. up C. for D. at

19. My sister is very fond _____ eating chocolate candy.

A. of B. with C. about D. at

20. Who’s going to look _____ the children while you’re away?

A. at B. up C. after D. over

ANSWER:

I. 1. in 2. on 3. at 4. about 5. with

6. from 7. before 8. of 9. until 10. between

11. with 12. After 13. by 14. into 15. at/ of

16. to/ on 17. by 18. for 19. on 20. about

II. 1. A 2. C 3. A 4. C 5. C 6. C 7. B 8. B 9. C 10. C

11. D 12. A 13. A 14. C 15. B 16. A 17. A 18. C 19. A 20. C

III. Gạch chân đáp án đúng1) Your father is very kind (with/for/to/in) David.2) Hurry or you will be late (for/at/on/from) school.3) Were they present (in/at/on/about) the meeting?4) She was confused (with/on/about/in) the dates.5) His book is different (about/from/for/between) mine.6) Your plan is similar (with/to/of/for) his.7) The boy is afraid (of/on/in/about) snakes.8) She is accustomed (with/to/on/of) getting up early.9) He was successful (in/with/of/to) his job.10) That student is very quick (with/at/for/about) mathematics.11) Iraq is rich (on/for/to/in) oil.12) Are you aware (with/to/of/for) the time?13) Are you acquainted (to/with/in/of) this man?14) He has been absent (from/of/to/with) school lately.15) They are interested (in/on/about/with) buying a new house.16) Smoking is harmful (for/with/to/about) our health.17) She is serious (with/about/of/for) learning to be a doctor.18) I couldn’t believe what he said. It was contrary (to/with/for/in) his thought.19) Our study is very important (for/with/to/about) our future and useful (for/to/with/in) our country.20) Don’t give up your hope. Be confident (of/about/in/with) yourself.21) I have some tickets available (for/to/of/with) you.22) Are you capable (with/of/for/to) that job?23) He is accustomed (to/with/for/in) driving fast like this.24) Are you confident (with/of/about/in) what she has said?25) The room was available (with/for/to/on) 2 people.26) Finally, Jack is successful (on/in/at/to) his trade.27) This theatre is often crowded (with/to/on/about) viewers.28) Your bag is similar (with/to/about/for) mine.29) The bottle is full (with/of/in/at) water.30) Poison is harmful (to/with/for/about) humans.31) Cheques are useful (with/to/for/on) travellers.32) Are you successful (on/in/at/to) your experiment?33) She got back safe (for/from/with/to) her adventure.34) It was very lucky (to/for/of/with) me that my bag was found.35) He seems friendly (on/to/for/about) everyone in the village.36) She was sad (about/for/with/to) my refusal.37) Quang Linh is popular (with/for/to/in) folk songs.38) The student is quick (with/at/on/to) understanding what the teacher explains.39) The story is very pleasant (to/with/for/in) us.40) He is very kind (to/of/with/for) me.41) I’m capable (of/with/for/to) speaking two languages.42) She is never late (to/for/with/from) work.43) It was very nice (to/of/in/for) him to give me a lift.44) Yesterday Nga was absent (with/from/to/for) class because she was ill.45) Contrary (to/with/for/about) his doctor’s orders, he has gone back to work.46) Don’t worry (about/with/to/for) the money! I’ll lend you.47) They have been waiting (for/with/to/at) the bus for half an hour.48) Why don’t you ask (with/to/for/on) a pay increase?49) He took advantage (of/in/about/for) this opportunity to explain why he had done that.50) The weeks went slowly (by/with/of/for).51) You have to move this box to make room (for/to/about/with) the new television set.52) Nowadays we rely increasingly (on/in/at/to) computers to regulate the flow of traffic in the town.53) Translate these sentences (for/into/with/of) English.54) Have you taken notice (to/for/of/with) the sign “No Smoking”?55) Ken prefers Chinese food (about/to/over/with) French food.56) Don’t shout (to/at/with/for) the child when he makes a mistake.57) Last Sunday I was invited (to/on/in/at) his wedding party.58) I have been looking (after/for/into/at) my dog for two days but I haven’t seen it yet.59) I don’t care (about/for/with/to) what they have said.60) I talked to him so enjoyably that I lost track (to/with/of/for) the time.61) He spent too much money (with/on/to/in) that car.62) Do you believe (on/at/to/in) God?63) You must make allowance (to/for/with/of) him because he has been ill.64) May I start now? Yes, go (up/down/ahead/back).65) She caught sight (with/of/to/for) a car in the distance.66) She is leaving (to/for/with/at) Paris.67) Don’t make noise! I’m concentrating (to/on/in/at) the question.68) Things are going (to/on/out/off) nicely.69) She has suffered (from/to/with/about) her heart attack.70) The exchange rate of dollars is going (up/down/on/with) from 16,000 VND to 15,750 VND for one US dollar.71) We have lost touch (with/of/for/over) each other for a long time.72) I must study hard to keep pace (with/of/for/to) my classmates.73) The prices of petrol are going (up/down/on/out) from 52 US dollars to 54 US dollars for a barrel.74) I usually regard him (with/in/as/at) my close friend.75) Don’t make a fuss (over/on/at/of) such trifles.76) The bomb has gone (out/off/over/with) in a crowded street.77) Who will look (for/after/at/around) the child when you’re away?78) Congratulate you (in/to/on/with) winning the game.79) I feel very hot because the electricity has gone (off/out/along/after).80) The plane crashed (into/on/in/with) the mountain.81) I’ve lost my keys. Can you help me look (at/for/after/into) them?82) The book is divided (to/in/into/for) three parts.83) I wrote to the company asking them (to/for/about/with) more information about the job.84) Many people regard him (as/to/in/of) one of the greatest pianists in the world.85) Our teacher was very kind (of/to/for/with) us.86) Her children are very quick (with/about/at/for) computer games.87) This kind of music is popular (for/to/with/about) the young.88) Boys are fond (in/of/on/at) playing football.89) Last week the beach was overcrowded (of/over/with/for) people.90) She’s very worried (for/with/at/about) her mother’s health.91) Why are these two schools different (to/from/with/at) each other?92) Most children are ill-prepared (to/for/from/at) employment.93) Four-fifths of the world’s computers use programs (at/in/on/about) English.94) Attending all the lectures is important (to/with/at/in) us.95) English belongs (from/to/on/in) those who use it.96) Clean air provides us (for/at/with/about) a healthy supply of oxygen.97) My brother is very interested (in/at/on/about) chess but he is not good at it.98) I don’t think he was present (in/at/on/of) the meeting yesterday.99) Are you serious (for/about/with/over) learning to be an architect?100) She has become very famous (for/at/on/with) her novels.101) Mary always take good care (for/of/to/with) her children.102) Henry was born (on/in/at/to) 1992.103) Lisa is very good (at/with/in/about) chemistry.104) The forest fire went (after/off/out/along) after two days.105) I always find it hard to keep pace (up/with/for/on) Nam, one of the best students in my class.106) What do you often do (in/on/at/of) the evening?107) Smoking is not good (for/at/about/of) our health.108) The interview was broadcast (on/in/at/for) radio and television.109) That farmer succeeded (on/in/at/with) raising fish.110) Clean air is necessary (with/for/about/of) our health.111) The future of a country depends (in/at/on/from) the youth.112) There is a great difference (from/between/about/for) these two things.113) My father is used (to/on/in/at) living in the countryside.114) My father isn’t pleased (for/about/with/from) my work.115) Many people are involved (on/in/of/at) the use of English.116) English provides ready access (with/to/for/of) the world scholarship.117) She is always fed up (at/with/for/about) washing dishes after dinner.118) The roofs are covered (with/about/by/for) red tiles.119) My father insisted (in/on/of/at) building a new house.120) We are looking forward (in/at/for/to) seeing you again.

KEY

Tham khảo: Lý Thuyết Và Bài Tập Con Lắc Lò Xo Lý 12 Đầy Đủ Và Chi Tiết

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